Previous articleBaker Tilly US CEO Alan Whitman appointed Chair-Elect of global network Baker Tilly InternationalNext articleEx-US Olympics gymnastics coach John Geddert charged in Michigan in investigation tied to Larry Nassar sex abuse scandal Digital AIM Web Support MyHeritage lanserer en banebrytende funksjon for å animere ansiktene i stillbilder Pinterest Twitter WhatsApp Local NewsBusiness TAGS Pinterest Introducing Deep Nostalgia™ Facebook Facebook Twitter WhatsApp By Digital AIM Web Support – February 25, 2021
Okay, let’s face it; the holidays can be a very difficult season to maneuver when you are trying to maintain the progress you’ve made in 2020. Getting through the whirlwind of treats can seem like a constant barrage of temptation to stray from your healthy eating goals. The holidays don’t have to be a relentless obstacle course requiring you to be battle-ready every moment, but they do require some preplanning and strategizing to make it safely through to 2021. Here are my top five healthy holiday tips:1. Eat OftenIt may seem logical to try “saving” your calories throughout the day before a large holiday meal. Unfortunately, this idea can backfire, leaving you ravenous and ready to eat everything in sight! Instead, try eating as you normally would, enjoying a high protein meal or snack throughout the day to help curb your pre-meal appetite.2. Stay HydratedMany times we mistakenly think we are hungry when really we are thirsty. Your body needs half your body weight in ounces of water (and unsweetened beverages) throughout the day. ShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr continue reading »
CathNews 27 October 2016Family First Comment: Disturbing development.The nursing home, which is run by the Salvation Army, the UK-based Christian charity, lost a legal challenge to new assisted suicide rules.The regulations, introduced about a year ago, compel charities caring for the sick and elderly to offer assisted suicide when a patient or resident requests it.The nursing home objected on the grounds that the law violated the core religious beliefs of the Salvation Army and that it represented an affront to freedom of conscience.But the Federal Court rejected the complaint of the home, which is situated in the canton of Neuchatel, and ruled that individuals have the right to decide how and when they would like to end their lives.According to a report on Swiss Radio In English, the judges said the only way the home could avoid its legal obligations to permit assisted suicide was to surrender its charitable status.This would put the home outside of State control but it would also involve the loss of State subsidies.http://cathnews.com/cathnews/27387-christian-nursing-home-forced-to-allow-assisted-suicide-or-lose-charity-statusKeep up with family issues in NZ. Receive our weekly emails direct to your Inbox.
As part of its global Customer Appreciation Week, beverage giants Coca-Cola Nigeria, will host the second edition of its annual customer appreciation golf tournament, to celebrate and acknowledge its loyal customers across Nigeria.The golf tournament will be held across three cities (Lagos, Ibadan and Abuja), and will be attended by key stakeholders, distributors, customers and media; with six winners to emerge from the well-contested 18-hole tournament.The winners will get an all-expense paid trip to Mauritius to participate in the AfroAsia Mauritius Open Pro-AM Tournament in November. “We are conscious of the role strategic customer relationship plays in any successful business enterprise and how it delivers a huge boost to any company’s competitive advantage.“The Customer Appreciation Week is in line with our vision to collaborate and appreciate partners, inspiring moments of optimism and happiness using customer activities and rewarding engagements,” observed Head of Public Affairs and Communications, Coca-Cola Nigeria, Nwamaka I. Onyemelukwe.Commenting further, Managing Director, Datof Golden Heritage Limited, Mrs Elizabeth Abiodun-Toki, highlighted the importance of the event to key customers like her.“Coca-Cola continues to show us their immense gratitude. I have been a distributor of Coca-Cola since 1989 and they will always have my support. I am very proud of Coca-Cola for their growth over the years. My hope is that the company continues to host exciting events like this and we look forward to having a bigger and better competition in the coming years,” she concluded.Share this:FacebookRedditTwitterPrintPinterestEmailWhatsAppSkypeLinkedInTumblrPocketTelegram
A Hurricane Warning is in effect for coastal Palm Beach County and the Treasure Coast due to the threat of Hurricane Isaias this weekend. The Hurricane Warning extends from Boca Raton to the Volusia/Brevard County line in Central Florida.Miami-Dade and Broward remain under a Tropical Storm Warning. Also, a Hurricane Watch remains in effect from Hallandale Beach to south of Boca Raton.Isaias became a Category 1 hurricane late Thursday night and it is expected to travel across all of the Bahamas in the next few days, according to the National Hurricane Center.Isaias is forecast to remain a hurricane for the next couple of days as it moves up the coast of the U.S., threatening other states.
Aliquippa (13-0) Head Coach Mike Zmijanac doesn’t keep track of career milestones. He admitted as much prior to the start of the WPIAL Championship Trophy presentation ceremony.The pleasant and unseasonably warm temperatures that gave the east coast a feeling of summer in late November might have caused some Washington (12-1) players to believe that they really had a chance to upset the Quips. ELUDES DEFENDER—Terry Swanson of Aliquippa eludes a Washington defender in the Quips 34-7 win, Swanson rushed for 206 yards. The WPIAL’s leading rusher junior Shai “Shy” McKenzie, entered the game with 2,689 yards and 42 touchdowns, but the Quips held him to only 33 yards on 18 carries. It was Aliquippa’s junior Terry Swanson who stole the show by rushing for 206 yards, including a 60 yards touchdown to lead the Quips to a 34-7 victory.The best–kept secret in football isn’t one anymore, other than perhaps if you see Swanson out of uniform.Swanson and Dravon Henry are the only set of teammates in the WPIAL to have rushed for more than 1,000 yards.Aliquippa won a record 15th WPIAL football championship. The Quips are a Class A school that plays up in classification to Class AA. The two best area teams are Aliquippa and Clairton. It would make for a dream matchup. Will they ever face one another?“We had a deal to play Clairton at the beginning of the 2012 season,” said defensive coach Greg Gill. “But, the WPIAL would not approve of the game. I hope someone can make that game happen and the Bears will find out what Aliquippa is all about.”
Hume Innkeepers defended its Men’s Open Soccer League title, edging Old Dogs 1-0 in the final at Lakeside Pitch.Aaron Sedlbauer scored the lone goal of the game and Mike Precious registered the shutout to lead the Innkeepers.Mallard’s Source for sports would like to salute the Innkeepers with Team of the Week honours. The team includes, Paul Anderson, Quinn Starr, Leif Zapf-Gilje, Fletcher Fitzgibbon, Keefery Joyce, Ryan Lewis, Mitch Melanson, Chris Richards, Greg Kinnear, Mike Parenteau, Kelvin Opiyo, Zeke Grimshaw, Aaron Sedlbauer, Mike Precious, Mike Balance and Kerry Dyck.
FINISH LINES: Masochistic, Daily Racing Form’s early 7-2 favorite for the $2 million TwinSpires Breeders’ Cup Sprint on Nov. 5, worked four furlongs Thursday in a bullet 47.60, breezing. Santa Anita clocker Dane Nelson recorded a quarter mile clocking of 23.40 with a five furlong gallop out time of 1:01 flat. “Awesome” is how trainer Ron Ellis described the move. Masochistic will pass the Grade I “Win and You’re In” Santa Anita Sprint Championship on Oct. 8 and train up to the BC Sprint. “He runs well fresh,” Ellis said . . . On opening day next Friday, Lady Shipman will take on males in the Grade III Eddie D. Stakes for three-year-olds and up at about 6 ½ furlongs on turf. Trained by Kiaran McLaughlin, Lady Shipman is a virtual win machine, having won 13 of 19 career starts at tracks including Parx, Woodbine, Pimlico, Belmont, Gulfstream and Saratoga. If the four-year-old daughter of Midshipman fares well in the Eddie D., it could be on to the Breeders’ Cup Turf Sprint against males on Nov. 5. PRAT LOOKS FORWARD TO BREEDERS’ CUPWhat a difference a year makes.On Sept. 17, 2015, Flavien Prat suffered serious injuries in a riding spill that would force him to miss the Breeders’ Cup World Championships at Keeneland six weeks later.Fast forward to Sept. 17, 2016. The 24-year-old Frenchman wins the Grade I Northern Dancer Turf at Woodbine aboard The Pizza Man and is now is healthy as a horse for his Breeders’ Cup foray at Santa Anita come Nov. 4 and 5.“September 17, 2015, we’re at Los Alamitos, Flavien takes a spill and hurts his back,” recounted his full-time agent for the past two years, Derek Lawson. “September 17, 2016, we ride the Pizza Man at Woodbine and win a Grade I.“Flavien was out for three months after the spill, but he’s back now and in the best condition he’s been in. All the other stuff is behind us now.”Evidence of that was bold and clear when Prat tied perennial Southern California riding king Rafael Bejarano for the recent Del Mar riding title. Each won 38 races.“He has 137 wins so far this year,” Lawson pointed out. “He’s developed a super-great relationship with two other French riders, Julien Leparoux and Florent Geroux. They’re all buddies, they all win tons of races and they challenge each other on the race track.“Each has his own set of riding skills they use at various points in a race, and when they’re competing against each other, it’s fun to watch.”Geroux will be at Santa Anita Saturday to ride Zipessa for trainer Michael Stidham in the Rodeo Drive Stakes.“The big thing was winning the Del Mar title,” Lawson continued. “Even though it was a tie, there are dead heats in racing, and I told Flavien, ‘Hey, we dead-heated for a win.’ It was a lot of fun and now we start at Santa Anita and see how we do in the Breeders’ Cup.” Prat’s expected Breeders’ Cup mounts include Lord Nelson in the Sprint, Avenge in the Filly & Mare Turf, and With Honors in the Juvenile Fillies Turf. NYQUIST SETTLES IN FOR PENNSYLVANIA DERBYKentucky Derby winner Nyquist is on the scene at Parx in Bensalem, Pa., for Saturday’s $1.25 million Pennsylvania Derby, and trainer Doug O’Neill will fly out Friday to join the champion two-year-old colt owned by Paul and Zillah Reddam.“I talked to the boys this morning,” O’Neill said Thursday at Santa Anita. “He tracked and visited the gate today, stood in there, met the gate crew, and we’re optimistic about Saturday.“Getting him there usually is fine, but still, going from a van to a plane, back to a van, new stalls, anything can happen, but so far, so good, a very smooth transition.” PLUM DANDY STEPS UP IN GRADE IN FRONTRUNNERSimon Callaghan is looking forward to seeing Spendthrift Farm’s Plum Dandy run in the Grade I, $2 million Sentient Jet Breeders’ Cup Juvenile at 1 1/16 miles come Saturday, Nov. 5.But first things first, and that would be the FrontRunner Stakes at 1 1/16 miles on Oct.1.“He broke his maiden impressively at Del Mar,” the trainer said of the son of Medaglia d’Oro. “He relaxes good and he gets the distance well, but it’s a big step up from maiden company to a Grade I where there are more established two-year-olds.”Also probable for the FrontRunner are Del Mar Futurity winner Klimt, Rafael Bejarano, and third-place Futurity finisher Midnight Pleasure, Martin Garcia. Klimt worked five furlongs Wednesday for Bob Baffert in 1:00.40. CHROME TO WORK SATURDAY FOR AWESOME AGAIN Mighty California Chrome, riding a five-race winning streak, will work seven furlongs early Saturday at his Los Alamitos headquarters for the Grade I, Breeders’ Cup “Win and You’re In” Challenge Race Saturday, Oct. 1, at Santa Anita.“He’ll ship to Santa Anita early Sunday,” trainer Art Sherman said by phone Thursday from the Cypress track.California Chrome worked six furlongs last Saturday at Los Al in a bullet 1:13.20. The five-year-old California-bred son of Lucky Pulpit won the Pacific Classic last out by five lengths on Aug. 20 and has won each of his last five races by daylight margins, boosting his career earnings to a North American record $13,252,650.Three-time Eclipse Award champion Beholder, meanwhile, is scheduled to work six furlongs at Santa Anita early Friday morning for Richard Mandella, who conditions the six-year-old daughter of Henny Hughes for B. Wayne Hughes.Beholder will attempt to turn the tables on 2015 Three-Year-Old Filly champion Stellar Wind in the Zenyatta Stakes on Oct. 1. Stellar Wind upset Beholder in the Clement L. Hirsch Stakes at Del Mar on July 30.If ever there was a horse for course, however, it’s Beholder, winner of 13 races from 14 starts at Santa Anita. The Awesome Again and the Zenyatta are two of five Grade I, “Win and You’re In” Breeders’ Cup Challenge events on the second day of Santa Anita’s 23-day Winter Meet.Santa Anita hosts the Breeders’ Cup World Championships for an unprecedented ninth time on Nov. 4 and 5.Supplementing the headline events will be the FrontRunner Stakes for two-year-olds at 1 1/16 miles; the Chandelier Stakes for two-year-old fillies at 1 1/16 miles; and the Rodeo Drive Stakes for fillies and mares, three and up, at 1 ¼ miles on Santa Anita’s renovated turf course.Victory gives the winning horse in each race a fees paid berth to its respective Breeders’ Cup event.On Saturday, Oct. 8, the Grade I Santa Anita Sprint Championship for three year olds and up at six furlongs will serve as a springboard to the $1.5 million TwinSpires Breeders’ Cup Sprint on Nov. 5.Santa Anita’s 23-day Autumn Meet starts on Friday, Sept. 30 and concludes on Sunday, Nov. 6. Friday’s feature is the $100,000, Grade III Eddie D., named for one of the game’s greatest riders, Hall of Fame member Eddie Delahoussaye. The ever-popular Cajun will be on hand to present a trophy to the winning connections.Entries for next Saturday and Sunday’s races will be taken a week from today, Wednesday, Sept. 28. Friday’s opening day card will be drawn on Tuesday, Sept. 27.First post time opening day will be 1 p.m. First post Saturday and Sunday, Oct. 1 and 2, will be 12:30 p.m. -30- A YEAR LATER, NO PRATFALLS FOR FLAVIENCHROME ARRIVES SUNDAY AT SANTA ANITABEHOLDER BREEZES FRIDAY FOR ZENYATTAPLUM DANDY RIPE FOR FRONTRUNNER STAKESNYQUIST SETTLES IN FOR PENNSYLVANIA DERBYMASOCHISTIC IN BULLET BREEZE FOR SPRINT
Ross Anderson (PhD biochemistry) is professor of biochemistry at The Master’s University in southern California. Dr Anderson’s expertise is in the area of biochemistry and molecular biology. He has taught Biochemistry and helped to direct research projects of graduate and medical students at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. Dr. Anderson was a post-doctoral researcher in the Molecular Genetics Division of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Houston Neurosensory Center.Dr Anderson was a member of both the undergraduate and graduate faculty at Lamar University, Beaumont, TX. There he taught and directed the research activities of undergraduates and Masters of Science degree candidates in Biology. Currently he is professor of biochemistry at The Master’s University in southern California.Dr Anderson’s research interests include structure-function studies of DNA polymerizing enzymes and the synthesis and expression of synthetic human genes in bacterial hosts. He has authored or co-authored several publications in major, peer-reviewed journals. He is a member of the American Chemical Society and Sigma Xi Research Society. by Ross Anderson, PhDMitochondria are very interesting and unique organelles. All eukaryotic cells possess them. They are indispensable in a number of cell activities beyond their well-known role of synthesizing the bulk of ATP used to power cells. Mitochondria reproduce at rates that are, for the most part, independent of the cell division cycle. However, they always manage to generate about twice the number just before the time of mitosis and cytokinesis so that each daughter cell receives approximately equal numbers of mitochondria. How this is regulated and coordinated is unknown.The Mitochondrial GenomeMitochondria have their own genomes separate from that in the nucleus. Each mitochondrion may have 5 to 10 copies of the genome organized into clusters called nucleoids, and a cell may have a thousand mitochondria. This means that each cell may have 5,000 to 10,000 copies of the mitochondrial genome! At conception it is estimated that mammals inherit 100,000 to 500,000 mitochondrial genomes via the egg!The Problem of Mutational DegradationDue to mutations, it is possible for a single mitochondrion to have “healthy” copies as well as defective/mutated copies. Such cells with two or more distinct varieties of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are said to be heteroplasmic. Mitochondrial DNA encodes various protein subunits used for ATP production, their own transfer RNAs (tRNA), and ribosomal RNAs (rRNA). Most of the proteins used in the mitochondria, however, are encoded in nuclear genes.Like nuclear DNA, mtDNA mutates, but at a much greater rate; 5 to 10 times greater than the genes in the nucleus. This may possibly be due to lower fidelity in DNA replication, lower efficiency in DNA repair mechanisms, or both. There are a number of disease states that are the result of too many mutated mitochondrial genes.Mitochondrial InheritanceMitochondria of mammalian cells and fruit flies, indeed most eukaryotes, are inherited from the mother’s egg cells. These diseases then are inherited through the mother. Consequently, it is imperative that those mitochondria be as “healthy” genetically as possible. If a mitochondrion generates more mutated copies than can be tolerated, there must be a mechanism for recognizing these defective mitochondria and destroying them so that only “healthy” mitochondria are maintained in the egg and passed on to the next generation. The high rates of mutation would suggest that most cells would exhibit heteroplasmy, but this is not the case. Most cells are homoplastic; i.e., they have mitochondria with identical genomes. Thus, there must be a way that cells are able to identify mitochondria with defective DNA, keep them from reproducing and eliminate them. The cells, in effect, create a bottleneck through which only “healthy” mitochondria are permitted to pass.Forcing Mitochondria Through a Bottleneck InspectionThe authors of a letter in Nature by Lieber et al. performed a series of ingenious experiments investigating factors that may be involved in identifying defective mitochondria; i.e., creating the bottleneck. They transplanted wild-type mitochondria from one species of fruit fly, D. yakuba, into another species of fruit fly, D. melanogaster, which already had mitochondrial genomes with a temperature-sensitive point mutation in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. Flies grown at the permissive temperature (18○C) exhibited little effect, while those grown at the restrictive temperature (29○C) exhibited reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity.When grown at the restrictive temperature, they found there was a marked increase in the proportion of wild-type mitochondrial DNA from D. yakuba relative to the defective mtDNA, but only in the germline cells—not somatic cells. This indicated that the defective mtDNA was somehow selectively detected and destroyed.Whether from an evolutionary or a design perspective, this makes perfect sense. Somatic cells can tolerate defective mitochondria more than germline cells because only that cell would be affected; it would not necessarily impact the next generation. Germline cells, though, would carry the defect into the next generation. Not surprisingly, it was also found that detection and destruction of defective mtDNA was limited to female germline cells, not male germline cells.Selection for destruction appeared to initiate in the very early stages of egg development; after the stem cell stage and during the cyst formation stage. Further experiments revealed that selection was at the level of whole mitochondria—not just defective DNA. Thus, it was the defective mitochondria that were being detected and destroyed.How Fragmentation Rescues Healthy mtDNAThe morphology of the mitochondrion changes from the stem cell stage to the cyst stage. The authors postulate that this change is due to fragmentation of the mitochondria, such that defective mitochondria are more easily detected. Additionally, from the 2-to-8-cell stage in the cyst, mtDNA is not replicated. This reduces the number of genomes per mitochondrion and decreases the possibility of both defective and wild-type genomes residing in the same mitochondrion. This strategy leads to improved selection. Mitochondria in the stem cell stage (which occurs prior to the cyst stage) were shown to share their contents easily. Fragmentation in the cyst cell stage, however, decreases the possibility of defective and wild-type mitochondria from sharing their contents.In this respect the stem cells are more like somatic cells. The reasoning is that in somatic cells mitochondria with defective DNA can fuse and share their contents, thus a “healthy” mitochondrion can complement and rescue a mitochondrion with defective DNA. Fusion cannot be permitted in germline cells, because the defective mtDNA would be masked by the “healthy” DNA, allowing mutations to accrue and to be passed on to each subsequent generation. The authors suggest that fragmentation, in some unknown way, aids in distinguishing defective from wild-type mitochondria.Intelligent SelectionThe authors were able to show that either overexpression of the protein Mitofusin (a protein involved in the fusion of mitochondria, and suppression of fragmentation), or the reduced expression of DrpI (a protein involved in mitochondrial fission; promotes fragmentation) led to loss of selection. This, again, suggested that a time of sustained fragmentation is necessary for selection. It was shown that mitochondrial fragmentation is not only necessary, but also sufficient for effective selection against defective mtDNA.Interestingly, experimentally reduced expression of Mitofusin in somatic cells also led to sustained fragmentation and subsequent selection against defective mtDNA. However, a reduction in Mitofusin expression (both the protein and its mRNA) is normally found only in the germline cells at the cyst cell stage; i.e., this reduction in Mitofusin is observed selectively in germline cells, not somatic cells.Design in the Timing, TooATP synthase is a rotary motor that generates 3 ATP per revolution.This observation strongly suggests a design feature for the purpose of generating a period of sustained fragmentation early in egg development so that selection against defective mtDNA can be more effective. Further investigation is needed to ascertain just how defective mtDNA is identified. However, the authors were able to determine that reduction in ATP production is sufficient to induce selection. This makes sense considering that most of the protein-coding genes of mitochondria are for subunits of the ATP synthase rotary engines or for the other complex machinery of the electron transport chain.Another protein, BNIP3, was also found to be selectively upregulated in cyst cells. This protein is located in the mitochondrial outer membrane. It plays an important role in mitophagy [mitochondrial recycling] in somatic cells as when maturing red blood cells need to rid themselves of all their organelles including mitochondria.Design ThroughoutSo, the selective reduction of Mitofusin expression and increased expression of DrpI and BNIP3 at the same time and in the same select group of cells (cyst cells) smacks of design! We must also keep in mind that these proteins do not work alone, but rather in coordinated complexes with a number of other proteins designed to carry out a specific function at a specific time and place. If that’s not enough, these authors also mention reports that another protein, Pink1, may recognize and inhibit replication of the defective mtDNA, which in some unknown way stimulates replication of the wild-type DNA so that the “healthy” DNA can dominate.Design in the CleanupOnce mitochondria carrying defective DNA have been selected, they are destroyed by a process known as mitophagy, a type of autophagy whereby certain organelles are selectively destroyed, and their contents recycled by the cell. Pink1 in conjunction with another protein, Parkin, initiate mitophagy. In healthy mitochondria, Pink1 is imported into the matrix of the mitochondrion, but is not imported by defective mitochondria. Instead it accumulates on the outer surface of the outer membrane, recruits Parkin which, in turn, adds ubiquitin tags to outer membrane proteins targeting them for destruction.SummaryIt appears that the ability of a developing egg cell to create the genetic bottleneck leading to homoplastic cells is its ability to initiate sustained fragmentation whereby mitochondria containing defective DNA are selectively eliminated. Taken in toto with other information not in the article, it seems to me that the design inference is strong.This article, like virtually all others of its kind, addresses the scientific questions of ‘What is it? What does it do?’ And ‘How does it do it?’ While we slowly learn more and more answers to these questions, and someday may be able to describe in intimate detail the inner workings of cells, we will never be able to accurately answer the question of ‘How it came to be?’ short of invoking the genius of an all-powerful, creative designer.The authors, unfortunately, felt the need to attribute the process of selective identification and destruction of aberrant mtDNA to the all-powerful deity, Evolution, and thus gave their token bow. I find it simply amazing how so many intelligent researchers can report many of the detailed features of living creatures yet still attribute it to chance and state that any inference to design is only an illusion. All researchers need to take a few steps back and look at the forest, and not be so focused on the trees. (Visited 304 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Mark Sulc, Ohio State University ExtensionWith the cold weather this week, livestock owners need to keep in mind the few forage species that can be extremely toxic soon after a frost. Several species contain compounds called cyanogenic glucosides that are converted quickly to prussic acid (i.e. hydrogen cyanide) in freeze-damaged plant tissues. A few legumes species have an increased risk of causing bloat when grazed after a frost. Each of these risks is discussed in this article along with precautions to avoid them.Species with prussic acid poisoning potentialForage species that can contain prussic acid are listed below in decreasing order of risk of toxicity after a frost event:Grain sorghum = high to very high toxic potential Indiangrass = high toxic potential Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids and forage sorghums = intermediate to high potential Sudangrass hybrids = intermediate potential Sudangrass varieties = low to intermediate in cyanide poisoning potential Piper sudangrass = low prussic acid poisoning potential Pearl millet and foxtail millet = rarely cause toxicity Species not usually planted for agronomic use can also develop toxic levels of prussic acid, including the following: Johnsongrass, Shattercane, Chokecherry, Black cherry, and Elderberry. It is always a good idea to check areas where wild cherry trees grow after a storm and pick up and discard any fallen limbs to prevent animals from grazing on the leaves and twigs.Fertility can affect poisoning risk. Plants growing under high nitrogen levels or in soils deficient in phosphorus or potassium will be more likely to have high prussic acid poisoning potential.Fresh forage is more risky. After frost damage, cyanide levels will likely be higher in fresh forage as compared with silage or hay. This is because cyanide is a gas and dissipates as the forage is wilted and dried for making silage or dry hay.Plant age affects toxicity. Young, rapidly growing plants of species that contain cyanogenic glucosides will have the highest levels of prussic acid. After a frost, cyanide is more concentrated in young leaves and tillers than in older leaves or stems. New growth of sorghum species following a non-killing frost is dangerously high in cyanide. Pure stands of indiangrass can have lethal levels of cyanide if they are grazed when the plants are less than 8 inches tall.Toxicity symptomsAnimals can die within minutes if they consume forage with high concentrations of prussic acid. Prussic acid interferes with oxygen transfer in the blood stream of the animal, causing it to die of asphyxiation. Before death, symptoms include excess salivation, difficult breathing, staggering, convulsions, and collapse.Ruminants are more susceptible to prussic acid poisoning than horses or swine because cud chewing and rumen bacteria help release the cyanide from plant tissue.Grazing PrecautionsThe following guidelines will help you avoid danger to your livestock this fall when feeding species with prussic acid poisoning potential:• Do not graze on nights when frost is likely. High levels of toxic compounds are produced within hours after a frost, even if it was a light frost. • Do not graze after a killing frost until plants are dry, which usually takes 5 to 7 days. • After a non-killing frost, do not allow animals to graze for two weeks because the plants usually contain high concentrations of toxic compounds. • New growth may appear at the base of the plant after a non-killing frost. If this occurs, wait for a killing freeze, then wait another 10 to 14 days before grazing the new growth. • Don’t allow hungry or stressed animals to graze young growth of species with prussic acid potential. To reduce the risk, feed ground cereal grains to animals before turning them out to graze. • Use heavy stocking rates (4-6 head of cattle/acre) and rotational grazing to reduce the risk of animals selectively grazing leaves that can contain high levels of prussic acid. • Never graze immature growth or short regrowth following a harvest or grazing (at any time of the year). Graze or greenchop sudangrass only after it is 15 to 18 inches tall. Sorghum-sudangrass should be 24 to 30 inches tall before grazing. Do not graze wilted plants or plants with young tillers. Greenchop• Green-chopping frost-damaged plants will lower the risk compared with grazing directly, because animals are less likely to selectively graze damaged tissue. Stems in the forage dilute the high prussic acid content that can occur in leaves. However, the forage can still be toxic, so feed greenchop with great caution after a frost. Always feed greenchopped forage of species containing cyanogenic glucosides within a few hours, and don’t leave greenchopped forage in wagons or feedbunks overnight.Hay and silage are saferPrussic acid content in the plant decreases dramatically during the hay drying process and the forage should be safe once baled as dry hay. The forage can be mowed anytime after a frost if you are making hay. It is rare for dry hay to contain toxic levels of prussic acid. However, if the hay was not properly cured and dried before baling, it should be tested for prussic acid content before feeding to livestock.Forage with prussic acid potential that is stored as silage is generally safe to feed. To be extra cautious, wait 5 to 7 days after a frost before chopping for silage. If the plants appear to be drying down quickly after a killing frost, it is safe to ensile sooner.Delay feeding silage for 8 weeks after ensiling. If the forage likely contained high levels of cyanide at the time of chopping, hazardous levels of cyanide might remain and the silage should be analyzed before feeding.Nitrate accumulation in frost foragesFreezing damage also slows down metabolism in all plants that might result in nitrate accumulation in plants that are still growing, especially grasses like oats and other small grains, millet, and sudangrass. This build-up usually isn’t hazardous to grazing animals, but green chop or hay cut right after a freeze can be more dangerous. When in doubt, send a forage sample to a forage testing lab for nitrate testing before grazing or feeding it.Species that can cause bloatForage legumes such as alfalfa and clovers have an increased risk of bloat when grazed one or two days after a hard frost. The bloat risk is highest when grazing pure legume stands and least when grazing stands having mostly grass.The safest management is to wait a few days after a killing frost before grazing pure legume stands – wait until the forage begins to dry from the frost damage. It is also a good idea to make sure animals have some dry hay before being introduced to lush fall pastures that contain significant amounts of legumes. You can also swath your legume-rich pasture ahead of grazing and let animals graze dry hay in the swath. Bloat protectants like poloxalene can be fed as blocks or mixed with grain. While this an expensive supplement, it does work well when animals eat a uniform amount each day.Frost and Equine Problems (source: Bruce Anderson, University of Nebraska)Minnesota specialists report that fall pasture, especially frost damaged pasture, can have high concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates, like sugars. This can lead to various health problems for horses, such as founder and colic. They recommend pulling horses off of pasture for about one week following the first killing frost.High concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates are most likely in leafy regrowth of cool-season grasses such as brome, timothy, and bluegrass but native warm-season grasses also may occasionally have similar risks.Another unexpected risk can come from dead maple leaves that fall or are blown into horse pastures. Red blood cells can be damaged in horses that eat 1.5 to 3 pounds of dried maple leaves per one thousand pounds of bodyweight. This problem apparently does not occur with fresh green leaves or with any other animal type. Fortunately, the toxicity does not appear to remain in the leaves the following spring.